AP or Artist's
As part of the
regular numbered edition, the artist usually selects a specific number of
identical proofs for either his/her own use, for a museum, or for other
purposes. These proofs may be designated as artist's proof (AP, EA in
French, or PA in Spanish), printers' proofs (PP) or hors d'commerce (HC)
images. A smaller number of artist's proofs are produced for each
edition. Many collectors try to obtain AP's for a more exclusive art
collection. Depending on the artist, the AP's sometimes cost more than
the regular edition prints as there is a much smaller amount available.
Generally speaking, the AP edition is usually 10% of the total edition size
- thus a regular edition size of 500 pieces would have an Artist Proof
edition size of only 50 pieces.
Theses are separate
sheets of paper included with every limited edition print that serves to
authenticate the work for insurance and valuation purposes.
Some editions are
produced with deckled edges, which means the print has been carefully torn
along all of the edges, to create a hand-crafted look. Sometimes
deckled prints are floated over risers behind the print, so that it appears
to float in the frame behind the glass. Decking is done only by hand,
with a straight edge guide to insure that the image is not torn too greatly.
A Giclee (pronounced
zhee-CLAY) is an Irin-Generated reproduction print, and is the most
accurate form of printing available. Many artists favor this medium,
as it is the closest to the original art as printing will allow.
Giclee can be printed on any medium, from rice paper to canvas, which gives
it a great amount of versatility. The giclees are produced in small
editions, usually around 350. Prices are variable, but affordable for
even the beginning collector.
Iris Giclee printing
is one of the best modern reproductions techniques. The accuracy and
richness of color are nearly indistinguishable from the original work of
technology uses microscopically fine drops of ink to create the image.
The process works much like an inkjet color printer, only on a much finer
scale. On a giclee, the printed drops are about the size of a red
blood cell, which are much too small to see with the naked eye. This
process produces near continuous tone and a richer color palette than other
methods, like four-color process lithography.
Museums around the
world have used reproduction giclees in exhibits, as stand-ins for the
original while it is out for cleaning or restoration.
number of impressions are produced from a master plate, stone, or other
method, after which no more impressions are allowed. The edition size
is the sum of all numbered pieces and artist's proofs.
As a printing
process lithography is probably the most unrestricted. It produces
tones ranging from intense black to the most delicate gray as well as a full
range of colors. It also simulates with equal facility the effects of
pencil, pen, crayon, or brush drawing. For the commercial reproduction
of art works, photolithography has played an increasingly important
role. In this process a photographic negative is exposed to light over
a gelatin-covered paper. Wherever the light does not strike the
gelatin, the latter remains soluble while the other parts are rendered
insoluble. When the soluble portions are washed away, the pattern to
be printed can be inked and transferred to a plate. Color lithography
requires as many plates as the number of colors employed. Several
hundred fine proofs can be taken from one plate. The commercial
printing applications of the lithographic process are vast in scope and
almost unlimited in number.
A mixed media print
is a combination of a serigraph and an offset lithograph. This type of
printing is known for its three-dimensional quality and less expensive price
tag. The editions are approximately 1000 to 1800 pieces.
painted utilizing acrylic, oil, airbrush, watercolor paints, or various
other kinds of media which are hand-brushed onto the canvas. They will
generally cost the most money, but the payoff is the one-of-a-kind
value. All limited editions and even posters must start out as an
original, but not every original is created into an edition.
prints primarily for commemorative purposes.
Any edition released
after the death of the artist.
As a general rule,
the highest quality medium carries with it the highest rarity factor.
The variation and the number of pieces, total size of the edition, and the
printing technique or process are all directly related to the cost and
valuation of the artwork. Some works sell out very quickly, creating a
demand for the piece that can inflate the value very quickly. As more
people buy it, supply decreases while demand grows, which increases the
rarity and value.
A sketch originally
made by the artist on the margin of his plate to test his tools.
Because such remarques were originally intended to be scraped or burnished
away before the final edition of the plate is printed, a print with a
remarque is often called a remarque proof. In the nineteenth century
such remarques came to be so valued that they were often retained as part of
the finished print. The subjects of these little drawings typically
relate in some way to the larger image. Can also indicate
hand-embellishment of a print after production.
These are very
special prints as they are each hand-pulled and hand-detailed. Each
edition takes three to four months to produce. Each color to be
printed requires a plate that is the screen itself painted by hand with
tusche, a substance soluble to solvent. The remaining area of the
screen in blocked out with glue (which is unaffected by solvent).
After the tusche has been washed out with solvent, the screen is ready to
print one color. Paper is placed, within registration marks, under the
screen. Paint, placed on the screen, is forced by a squeegee pushed
from one end of the screen to the other through the screen onto the
paper. The operation is repeated for each color. Each color is
mixed prior to each run. the process is repeated for the total number
of prints in the edition. The edition size is generally about 500
total impressions, 250 to 400 impressions are printed on a white archived
paper and the remaining 50 to 150 are on special black Chait Noir
papers. An edition of serigraphs (like any other graphic medium)
additionally includes Artist's Proofs (usually 10% of the edition), which
help obtain the right registration, the correct color, the best paint
consistency, and all the other qualities that create fine graphic art.
For select images, a serigraph canvas version is produced. These
limited editions mirror the originals so accurately that is it difficult to
tell the difference between the serigraph and hand-detailed. Each
edition takes three to four months to produce.
In a limited
edition, the artist writes his/her signature and a number on the bottom of
the print. The number appears as a fraction, such as 10/75. This
indicates that the work is the 10th print signed in this edition of 75
Also known as "Gallery Wrapped". In this process, the
image is printed directly onto the canvas. In all fine art limited
editions the canvas version is generally much more expensive because it is a
closer medium to the original oil. This product matches the original
painting in both the look and feel. The sides are painted as
well. No framing is needed. Simply take it out of the box and
hang it up.